Education is the term used to refer to learning by which knowledge, belief and habits as well as skills and values of one group of people is passed to another, from generation to generation through various aspects such as discussion, storytelling, teaching and training. It not only denotes the ‘formal transmission’ through these factors to a group of people but also ‘informal transmission’ from one person to another.It is the system where learning takes place under the guidance of teachers and tutors; in the same way, those who teach can also educate themselves further. This is called ‘autodidactic learning’.Education can also be used to denote ‘the knowledge gained from an experience that has an impacted effect on a person’s beliefs, thoughts, feelings and actions’.The word ‘education’ has its origin from the Latin word ‘educatio’ used to refer to ‘a bringing up’. Broadly, ‘educo’ relates to the meaning “I train, I educate”; ‘educo’ itself is the combination of ‘e’ (from) and ‘duco’ (I conduct).The ‘right to education’ is a fundamental right accorded to the citizens of many governments worldwide. The United Nations’ International Covenant on Economic, Social and Cultural Rights endorses and recognizes the right to education for all the citizens. In most countries, education is compulsory for children up to a certain age. In developed and developing countries, formal education is that where children go to school to learn from qualified and skilled teachers. More often these days, school attendance is not always compulsory and that leads many parents to ‘home school’ or ‘home tutor’ their children with the assistance of either private teachers or through methods involving e-learning, which is the use of electronic material and technology to learn. This is a kind of informal learning.The ‘art and science’ of education, which translates into ‘how best to teach’ is called Pedagogy. At school level, education is categorized into stages like preschool, primary, secondary, higher or tertiary etc while beyond school higher education is slotted into college and university and/or apprenticeship.History of EducationIn ancient history, there is the reference of the ‘Academy’ founded by Plato in Athens before 300 BC. The city of Alexandria, founded in 330 BC surpassed Athens as the ‘cradle of intellect’ in ancient Greece. The Library of Alexandria, a historical monument contained translations of the Bible from Hebrew to Greek under the patronage of mathematicians and astronomers like Euclid and Herophilus. The supremacy of the earliest European civilizations came to an end when the Roman Empire declined in 476 AD.The focus then shifted eastward with the Chinese philosopher-scholar Confucius whose outlook on education and reforms influenced many south-east Asian nations like Korea, Japan and Vietnam. His teachings and discussions were recorded by his followers and his philosophies continue to exert influence to this day in many parts of Asia. In India, for instance, the gurukul tradition of teaching and learning where a teacher or trainer taught knowledge and skills to his ‘wards’ by living and training with the master in a community set up has continued in some form to this day at institutes and schools where fine arts, music and dance forms are taught.In various regions around the world, adults of one generation trained the young of the following one in the knowledge, values and skills through oral teaching and through imitation prior to the birth of literary societies and skill sets. As cultures flourished, a system of formal education appeared to impart knowledge and skills; there is evidence of the presence of schools in Egypt in ancient days.The Early Middle Ages saw the rise of the Catholic Church as the preserver of literary teaching and skills; many medieval universities of Christendom across Europe encourage freedom of thought, speech and enquiry producing a vast number of fine philosophers and scholars. Among the oldest continually operating universities of Europe, the University of Bologne is considered the first and the finest.With the advent of the printing press in its earliest form, literary works of art and education flourished and spread more quickly through the continents. Missionaries and scholars, particularly the Jesuits played a significant role in the transmission of knowledge from Europe to Asia.
Many financial pundits embrace grandiose theories and use mathematical formulas to convince the vast sea of American Investors to accept their vision of the perfect American Retirement Account Balance. They make statements like “by the time you are sixty five you should have X$ in your retirement portfolio to cover health care costs or to live the perfect dream of exotic travel and extravagant lifestyle of spend, spend and more spending. Retirement plans and accounts, however, are like “beauty” it is in the “Eye of the Beholder”! My perfect retirement lifestyle is not necessarily my cousin’s or for that matter my next door neighbor’s. We all have different interests, needs, and desires.Â But we all do share one thing in common we deal in a risky business indeed called Investing.It may not be a forgone conclusion; that Penny Stock Investors are investing for retirement. Some will develop an investment portfolio to hedge their current business needs whatever that may be. Some may invest just to prove to themselves and others that they can, while still others invest as a business to generate their monthly income in order to meet obligations. Still others invest for one goal, to build up a massive amount of cash these are typically referred to as “Day Traders.This article is not an attempt to convince anyone how to invest or why for that matter, it is simply to give another point of view for the motivation of investing. The need to think about retirement whether you are a full time investor or just starting out or you have been a “bi-vocational” investor for years.No matter your motivation allow me to make a case for you to invest with one eye looking down the road to retirement regardless of how long or short that may be. We all know instinctively that one day we will “give up”, “give out”, or “wear out”! Now I am not trying to be pessimistic or to be a bearer of bad news especially for those of you in your twenties and thirties. But what I am tying to impress on everyone is that just like in the market, life has no guarantees! By that I mean life and the market share the same propensity for change, volatility, risk, and dare I say fees, loads, and charges. Why do you think that the game of Monopoly is so popular? Because Monopoly like real life reflects the whole concept of “Time and Chance”.For those folks who are the always the winner at Monopoly remember this, life isn’t a board game and you cannot ever memorize all the cards that will be thrown at you. This is just like Investing! Multiple volatile conditions affect your investments 24/7 and there is nothing that can stop Time and Chance from happening to you or anyone else for that matter. Since we are all equipped with this basic knowledge wouldn’t it be prudent to at least look down the road and work up for yourself a basic vision of what kind of retirement you would like to have and at what age? Here are a few topics for your consideration.Living arrangements – Family residence, condo/town home, retirement village? How much will that cost based on today’s economy and then calculate from your current age to your perfect retirement age how many years that is multiplied by 3% for inflation. You will need to revisit this about every year to adjust for current inflation rates. Currently inflation isn’t really an issue but that wont always be the case.Health Care Costs- we don’t really know what these will be any more than we can actually count the stars in the night sky. This is true for most investors living in the U.S. now days. Since this is a High Risk area we need an alternative plan other than just cash accumulation. There are two key concepts you need to study “Mortality & Morbidity”. They will make you feel real happy! Not!Food – Now here is a topic that whole 2hr seminars have been based around. Many folks living today who are in the Boomer generation can remember when the cost of a loaf of bread was.75Cents and a cup of coffee at a restaurant was.25 cents. How about the incredible edible Egg? from 1985-1987 the price per dozen ranged from 42.9 cents to 51.5 cents.(Cooperative Extension University of California Number 85 June 30, 1988)Currently in 2012 one dozen large grade “A” eggs are selling for $1.7059 while the organic brown shell eggs in a carton range from $2.61- $3.16(http://www.ams.usda.gov/pymarketnews.htm or [email protected])Based on just these three areas of life we can deduce that living will be more expensive in the future than it is right now. And this is not taking into consideration the punitive tax system we are under in the United States currently or the new taxes that have and will be voted into existence before and during our retirement.What areas can we offset the risk with careful planning? Well for one, risk can be reduced by a well thought out investment plan focusing on an annual return that will beat inflation and keep up with the market while never delivering bad news like a negative return. I think that you would agree that these types of accounts would be the perfect holding area for your “Bread and Butter” retirement fund. What are these types of accounts? Well they are widely available in every city, state and the whole nation for that matter they are Indexed Annuities.The Indexed Annuity with safety and a guaranty income provision can provide income protection for you for life and while you wait to start the income the account can grow and compound the returns on the interest generated, and on the Taxes you would have paid if the money were in another type of interest bearing account. And never give you a negative return.Some investors work from a forward looking strategy and determine what there Social Security income will be when they reach either their max retirement age or when they can take it the earliest and begin to accumulate that much cash reserves or purchase an annuity with that much money and let that keep up with inflation. Then go along there happy way being the raging stock investor they are on the inside.Now couple this with a disciplined Investment Strategy and you have a retirement focused plan where you can have the peace of mind that your retirement funds will always be safe and growing, while at the same time focus on the business at hand that of being the best penny stock investor you can be.All the Best & Happy Investing!Randall Coxwww.PennyStockSuccessTips.comP.S. In my next article entitled “Create an Investment “Safety Net” with Old Fashioned Insurance”. I am going to reveal little known tips and strategies that most married couples have not considered. These concepts will help married couples who have one investor minded partner and another who is so frightened about risking their financial future that they wont even dole out a quarter in a payphone for fear of losing it.And the secrets that affluent people have used in order to get their hands on tax free cash to invest and buy businesses.